The freedom to assemble, in two acts (2023)

The freedom to assemble, in two acts (1)

The freedom to assemble, in two acts (2)

The freedom to assemble

in two acts

By

Rachel Chasonand

Samantha Schmidt

Jan. 14, 2021

On Jan. 6, several hundred supporters of President Trump charged inside the Capitol to overturn an election the president had repeatedly and falsely claimed was stolen. They were mostly White, and they roamed freely through the halls, taking selfies and stealing souvenirs, smashing doors and defacing statues, amid sporadic calls to “Hang Mike Pence!” Many shoved and beat officers, one of whom later died.

On June 1, 2020, a crowd of similar size gathered outside the White House to protest after the police killing of George Floyd. They were a diverse group who called for an end to police brutality and racial inequity, and an army of federal agents, assembled after Trump demanded a show of domination, sent them running with chemical agents and rubber bullets.

These two demonstrations, at the most prominent symbols of democracy in the nation’s capital, will define Trump’s legacy, highlighting the divisions he has stoked and the disparate treatment of Black and White people in America by law enforcement.

President-elect Joe Biden said that if the rioters had been a group of Black Lives Matter protesters, they would have been treated “very differently than the mob of thugs that stormed the Capitol.”

“We all know that is true,” he said the next day. “And it is totally unacceptable.”

The freedom to assemble, in two acts (3)
The freedom to assemble, in two acts (4)

LEFT: June 1: Black Lives Matter protesters sit in the street to protest the police killing of George Floyd, the fourth gathering in as many days. (Mandel Ngan/AFP/Getty Images) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Trump supporters scale the walls of the Capitol's Senate side. The president urged “patriots” to go there to “take back our country” an hour before. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

The forceful clearing of Lafayette Square on June 1 last year was one of the most controversial confrontations during nationwide protests after Floyd’s death.

The three days that preceded it were largely peaceful by day and pocked by violence and destruction at night, with law enforcement chasing rioters through the capital’s streets. Trump grew more insistent that if local leaders couldn’t reclaim the city, he would. His administration ordered up an outsize and militarized response, with law enforcement swelling from a host of federal agencies, some with no identifying insignia, and National Guard from the District and 12 states.

In the early evening, shield-bearing riot officers and mounted Park Police brutally routed those gathered, apparently without provocation or audible warning as required by law. Shortly after, Trump strode through the cleared park with military leaders at his side to pose at a church whose leaders didn’t want him there.

At the massive Stop the Steal rally on Jan. 6, only one agency was initially on hand to protect senators and representatives and their staff: the Capitol Police. Their chief had requested reinforcements days before, he said, only to be rebuffed by Senate and House security officials.

The few hundred Capitol Police stationed outside the complex were joined by hundreds of hastily summoned D.C. police, but the officers were quickly overpowered when several hundred rioters pushed through low crowd-control stands and surged up the stone stairs.

It took hours for all the 1,100 D.C. National Guard troops to arrive.

(Video) Freedom to Assemble

Even though Trump supporters openly plotted an assault online, and police and FBI intelligence privately warned of attempted insurrection, and the president escalated his lies about election results, the law enforcement partners of summer failed to make a coordinated plan for Jan. 6.

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (6)

LEFT: June 1: Demonstrators gather near Lafayette Square and the White House. (Drew Angerer/Getty Images) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Supporters gather on the Ellipse to hear President Trump speak. (Jim Bourg/Reuters)

The summer protest was the fourth in as many days, part of a nationwide swell of revulsion after a Minneapolis police officer knelt on the neck of the unarmed Floyd as he gasped for breath. During the preceding two nights, stores were looted and cars and buildings were set ablaze, including a small fire in the basement of St. John’s Church.

On May 29, Trump and his family were rushed to a secure bunker in the White House after protesters hopped over temporary barricades near the adjacent Treasury building.

Early on June 1, the president criticized state and local leadership as “weak” and vowed to escalate the response to unrest in Washington. “We’re going to do something that people haven’t seen before,” Trump said in a call with governors and law enforcement. “You got to have total domination, and then you have to put them in jail.”

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (8)

LEFT: June 1: The night before Lafayette Square was cleared, protesters burn an American flag and other items near the White House. (Evelyn Hockstein for The Washington Post) RIGHT: Jan. 6: The night before Congress was to certify the election, a supporter of President Trump washes his eyes after getting tear-gassed by police, who broke up clashes at Black Lives Matter Plaza. (Shannon Stapleton/Reuters)

But the crowd that gathered that day was peaceful: A pastor stood in front of St. John’s handing out “free water and prayer.” A group danced, a woman played guitar, and families with small children walked by to see the crowd. The pandemic was in full swing, and protesters came with masks, hand sanitizer, granola bars, water bottles and cardboard signs: “End racist police violence,” and “Black moms want to breathe.”

“No justice, no peace” read the sign that 17-year-old Aly Conyers carried among the crowd. James Mattocks set up an easel to paint, sitting beside a barricade that separated him from rows of officers in riot gear.

About 2 p.m. that day, top law enforcement and military officials met at an FBI command center about a mile from the White House to plan for the night. Attorney General William P. Barr instructed U.S. marshals, federal agents, homeland security personnel and federal prison guards to multiply the number of law enforcement officers on D.C. streets by nightfall, according to Washington Post reporting.

That evening, dozens of Secret Service officers and 50 Arlington County police officers in SWAT gear converged near Lafayette Square. U.S. Park Police had more than 80 officers with shields and 15 mounted on horseback, The Post reported. D.C. National Guard and Air National Guard members carried shields with the words “military police.” U.S. marshals wore camouflage, and some officers had patches indicating they were guards from a U.S. penitentiary in Hazelton, W.Va.

About 6 p.m., Barr walked through Lafayette Square, meeting with law enforcement officials. Gen. Mark A. Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was there, too.

Barr would later tell reporters the operation was planned in advance, and was intended to move the perimeter one block. But law enforcement officials told The Post they believed the removal would happen after the 7 p.m. curfew that night, and had been accelerated after Barr and others appeared in the park.

In the previous three days of protests, law enforcement officers in D.C. generally used crowd-clearing tactics in response to individual provocations. But on June 1, officers were given instructions over police radios to execute “surges” to clear the demonstrators.

That intimidating and formidable presence demonstrated extensive preparation, said D.C. Attorney General Karl A. Racine (D), and “an entire presumption that folks who were protesting racial justice were dangerous.”

“I can only guess what would have happened if on June 1 there was a breach at the Capitol,” he said in a recent interview. “Kent State, maybe?”

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (10)

LEFT: June 1: Riot police enforce a secure perimeter as President Trump visits St. John's Church, after protesters were cleared nearby in a chaotic scene. (Brendan Smialowski/AFP/Getty Images) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Only a few hundred Capitol Police officers stood behind barricades as tens of thousands of Trump supporters massed at the Capitol's East Front. (Bill Clark/CQ-Roll Call/Getty Images)

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (12)
The freedom to assemble, in two acts (13)
(Video) Saidiya Hartman, "Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments"

LEFT: June 1: U.S. Park Police with riot gear face protesters demonstrating for racial justice inside Lafayette Square. (Olivier Douliery/AFP/Getty Images) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Trump supporters break down a police barrier outside the Capitol. (John Minchillo/AP)

June 1

Jan. 6

In contrast, all the layers of federal policing were nonexistent when the president’s faithful gathered at the Capitol. For weeks, Trump urged his supporters to show up for a protest he promised “will be wild.” Online forums bristled with references to violence in Washington and recommendations to come armed, despite the District’s laws against open carry.

They came by the tens of thousands Jan. 6, carrying Trump flags and Confederate flags alongside their Stars and Stripes, determined to stop Congress from recording Biden’s victory in an election Trump contends was rigged — claims more than 90 judges rejected in state and federal courts.

The several hundred who later penetrated the Capitol included members of the male chauvinist group the Proud Boys, the armed civilian group Oath Keepers, a 60-year-old gun rights activist from Arkansas and a Republican state lawmaker in West Virginia who has since resigned. Some wore camouflage jackets and pants, others helmets. They carried batons, bats and shields.

Near the Washington Monument ahead of Trump’s speech, Mike Wyatt, 44, huddled with his girlfriend beneath a sheet spray-painted to read “WE CHOSE TRUMP.”

“I really don’t hope for a civil war,” Wyatt, a construction worker from Missouri, said. “But there are people who won’t be pushed around.”

The president talked for an hour. “Mike Pence is going to have to come through for us,” he said. “And if he doesn’t, that will be a sad day. … Now it is up to Congress to confront this egregious assault on our democracy. And after this, we’re going to walk down and I’ll be there with you.”

“Fight for Trump,” the audience chanted.

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About a half-hour before the 7 p.m. curfew that District Mayor Muriel E. Bowser (D) imposed on June 1, federal officers in riot gear began moving crowds west on H Street at Lafayette Square, which is in front of the White House. A voice on a loudspeaker had warned the crowd to disperse, but the protesters couldn’t hear it. They turned to one another in confusion. “Did somebody do something?” Ty Hobson-Powell, then 24, recalled saying as he stood across from St. John’s. “What’s going on?”

Officers rolled chemical grenades onto the street. The air filled with smoke and tear gas. Officers struck reporters and demonstrators with riot shields and batons, and fired pepper balls at the crowd.

“My throat was burning. I was out of breath, breathing in and out this toxic air. I was alone,” said Conyers. Once she found her brother and friend, she raced for their car, a half-mile away. “We started running. We had no idea what they had planned, what was going to happen.”

As officers moved in with tear gas and riot shields, Mattocks fell to the ground. His easel and all of his paintings were destroyed in the chaos. He couldn’t see or breathe. A protester pulled him away from the street and flushed water in his eyes. Other protesters were trampled.

From the Rose Garden, Trump said he was taking “swift and decisive action to protect our great capital, Washington, D.C.”

“I am dispatching thousands and thousands of heavily armed soldiers, military personnel and law enforcement officers to stop the rioting, looting, vandalism, assaults and the wanton destruction of property,” he said. “We are putting everybody on warning, our 7 o’clock curfew will be strictly enforced.”

Minutes later, the president and a group of administration officials left the White House, crossed the area that had just been cleared of protesters, and walked to St. John’s Church. There, the president said nothing. He brandished a Bible, for the cameras.

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (16)
The freedom to assemble, in two acts (17)

LEFT: June 1: Park Police push back protesters with shields and batons. (Roberto Schmidt/AFP/Getty Images) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Trump supporters push to breach the interior of the Capitol building. (Victor J. Blue/Bloomberg News)

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (19)
(Video) With One Another - Acts 2:40-47 - Skip Heitzig

LEFT: June 1: Police fire tear gas to disperse people at a Black Lives Matter rally near Lafayette Square. Officers got instructions via radio to execute “surges” against demonstrators. (Roberto Schmidt/AFP/Getty Images) RIGHT: Jan. 6: A mob of Trump supporters storms the hallways of the Capitol. At least a dozen Capitol police officers are under investigation for their actions during the siege. One died the next day. (Roberto Schmidt/AFP/Getty Images)

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (22)

LEFT: June 1: President Trump prepares for a photo op with a Bible outside St. John's Church. (Tom Brenner/Reuters) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Richard Barnett, 60, sits with his leg on a desk in House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's office. He was later arrested. (Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images)

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (24)

LEFT: June 1: Multiple police units clear the area near Lafayette Square. (Alex Brandon/AP) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Security officers point their weapons at the barricaded doors of the House chamber. (Bill O'Leary/The Washington Post)

June 1

Jan. 6

Outrage followed the heavy military engagement in the June 1 civil protest, and it contributed to the cascade of failures at the Capitol.

Pentagon leaders held back this time. Capitol Police, who had 1,400 on duty that day, sent an urgent call for help only after they were surrounded.

The security failure led within a day to the resignation of Congress’s three top security officials.

Blame-shifting followed. Among the charges: The Defense Department had declined to send in D.C.'s National Guard; House and Senate security leaders had failed to listen to the Capitol Police; they and city police had not adequately planned.

Around 1 p.m., with Trump still speaking, rioters overwhelmed the few police guarding the Capitol’s western lawn and broke through the waist-high metal barricade.

“USA, USA, USA,” they chanted as they surged up the lawn, then up the steps onto the balcony, then onto the structures being built for Biden’s inauguration. “Whose Capitol? Our Capitol!”

“Fight for Trump, move forward,” a man dressed in camouflage shouted at those around him. “We’re coming for you, Pelosi,” another said.

After about an hour of banging on the Capitol doors, shouting “Let us in,” a man used a clear plastic riot shield to break through the windows on a first floor to the south side of the building, then hopped in with a few others.

A California woman named Ashli Babbitt was at the front of the crowd trying to bash in the windows of the door to the Speaker’s Lobby. She was fatally shot by a Capitol Police officer when she tried to climb through one of the windows.

Many who made it inside posed for photos in lawmakers’ offices and in the Senate chamber. One carried away a lectern, photos showed. An Arkansas man dressed in jeans, a flannel coat and a baseball cap propped his boot on a desk in Pelosi’s office, rested what appeared to be a weapon against his hip and draped an American flag over a pile of documents. He was arrested that Friday.

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Capitol Police rushed to protect lawmakers, leading them to secure chambers and at one point barricading them inside the House chamber. Videos and photos and accounts from those inside portrayed a chaotic, violent series of struggles between rioters and outmanned officers.

One officer, Brian D. Sicknick, died after being injured “while physically engaging with protesters,” police said in a statement. At least 58 other officers were injured.

But other police appear in photos to help members of the mob down stairs, pose for a picture and allow rioters to enter the Capitol grounds. Several Capitol Police officers have been suspended over their actions during the riot, and others are under investigation.

Many Trump supporters made excited calls to friends and family and took videos, marveling at the history they knew was being made.

“We weren’t violent before, but we are now,” said a middle-aged man, talking into his cellphone a few dozen feet from people trying to knock in a Capitol door. “There’s no going back.”

(Video) Saidiya Hartman & Arthur Jafa

Bowser deployed D.C. police after Capitol Police requested help following Babbitt’s shooting. By 3 p.m., the entire D.C. National Guard had been activated. “Traitors, traitors, traitors,” Trump supporters shouted as more officers arrived. “F--- the blue.”

That day, Capitol Police made 14 arrests and D.C. police arrested 69 people Wednesday afternoon through Thursday morning, most on curfew and unlawful entry charges.

Prosecutors have called the investigation one of the largest ever undertaken by the FBI, which has received thousands of tips from the public about perpetrators. As of Wednesday, the bureau has charged more than 70 people and identified 170 suspects.

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June 1

Jan. 6

In contrast, on June 1 and overnight, D.C. police arrested a total of 289 people, many of them on curfew violation charges that were later dropped. Hundreds of law enforcement officers trailed groups of protesters on the street. Military vehicles were stationed at intersections across downtown, blocking streets. A Black Hawk helicopter swept low over protesters in Chinatown, sending broken glass and branches flying as protesters screamed and ran in panic.

The next day, the president praised the show of force in the nation’s capital.

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The freedom to assemble, in two acts (28)

LEFT: June 1: President Trump walks to St John's Church. (Tom Brenner/Reuters) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Trump supporters attend a rally against certifying the presidential election results. (John Minchillo/AP)

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LEFT: June 1: Graffiti on buildings following previous protests in Washington. (Bill O'Leary/The Washington Post) RIGHT: Jan. 6: Damage and debris is left behind after the riot at the Capitol. (Olivier Douliery/AFP/Getty Images)

June 1

Jan. 6

Last week, Aly Conyers thought back to that summer night, and the fear she felt running to the safety of her car, when she saw the images of a mostly White crowd rushing Capitol barricades — and walking off federal property without handcuffs.

“It's a clear double standard,” Conyers said. “In the Black Lives Matter protests we were hundreds of feet away and there were lines and lines of police officers and military-grade weapons and trucks stopping us from getting to that building they were trying so hard to protect.”

D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D) is drafting a bill that will create a national commission to study how the mob overtook the Capitol. She said one thing she wants the commission to study is whether rioters were treated differently because they were mostly White.

“Black Lives Matter never made the kinds of attacks we saw by Trump’s proponents,” Norton said in an interview. “And yet they were never treated with respect.”

For Hobson-Powell, founder of the group Concerned Citizens DC, watching on the news as crowds of White people blew through barricades with little done to stop them was just the latest illustration of White privilege. “We have been brutalized, we have been arrested, even killed for less,” he said.

“People have been trying to call this un-American,” he added. “We have to understand that this is so American.”

Emily Davies contributed to this report.

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About this story

Story editing by Ann Gerhart. Photo editing by Haley Hamblin, Nick Kirkpatrick and Karly Domb Sadof. Design and development by Yutao Chen. Design editing by Virginia Singarayar. Copy editing by Jamie Zega.

(Video) Nationals Assemble: The bell has been rung and can not be unheard!!

FAQs

What is meant by the freedom to assemble? ›

Freedom of assembly is the right to hold public meetings or gatherings without the government interfering. An assembly is a gathering of people for some purpose. In the United States, freedom of assembly is guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States through the First Amendment.

What are two limits on the freedom to assemble? ›

The First Amendment protects peaceful, not violent, assembly. However, there must a “clear and present danger” or an “imminent incitement of lawlessness” before government officials may restrict free-assembly rights.

What is the meaning of freedom to assemble peacefully? ›

Freedom of peaceful assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.

What is an example of the right to assemble? ›

What is an example of freedom of assembly? Examples of meetings that are protected under the freedom of assembly include hosting a party, going to church, militia meetings, political party conventions, protests, public meetings, political demonstrations, rallies, and assemblies for any group of people.

Why is freedom assemble important? ›

Peaceful assembly is a bedrock of democratic institutions. It allows people to bring attention to issues, demand change, and get answers from public officials. Without freedom of assembly, there are fewer channels between elections for people to use information and opportunities for participation in open government.

Is the right to assemble in the Constitution? ›

First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Is freedom of assembly an absolute freedom? ›

Freedom of assembly, however, is not absolute. Most constitutional or legal provisions regarding this right specify that only peaceful assemblies are protected. Permits are sometimes required for assemblies in public places, and noise and traffic issues also limit the exercise of this right.

What are the 3 limits to freedom of speech? ›

Time, place, and manner. Limitations based on time, place, and manner apply to all speech, regardless of the view expressed. They are generally restrictions that are intended to balance other rights or a legitimate government interest.

How has the Supreme Court limited the right to assemble? ›

The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the right to peaceably assemble "for lawful discussion, however unpopular the sponsorship, cannot be made a crime." The decision applied the First Amendment right of peaceful assembly to the states through the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

What are some examples of peaceful assembly? ›

Such assemblies may take many forms, including demonstrations, protests, meetings, rallies, online assemblies, civil disobedience or direct action campaigns, provided that they are non-violent. Everyone has the right of peaceful assembly: including non-citizens and children.

What is right to assemble peaceably and without arms? ›

Constitution of India under Article 19 guarantees to all citizens of India rights “to assemble peaceably and without arms”. The Supreme Court of India in judgment dated 12 August 2016 in Anita Thakur and Ors. vs. Government of J&K and Ors.

What is the difference between freedom of speech and assembly? ›

Assembly is the only freedom in the First Amendment that requires multiple people to use it. We can speak, protest, publish and pray alone, but assembly requires us to come together. It can be a spontaneous gathering of people to protest or a planned demonstration.

What are the limits to freedom of assembly? ›

Protests That Pose Public Safety Threats

Violence or the threat of violence isn't the only limit on the right of assembly. Authorities may also prevent or stop gatherings that pose other immediate threats to public safety. Police routinely arrest protesters who block traffic on freeways or bridges.

When was freedom of assembly violated? ›

In Edwards v. South Carolina, 372 U.S. 229 (1963), the Supreme Court ruled that South Carolina had violated students' First Amendment rights of peaceable assembly, speech, and petition when the police dispersed a peaceful protest against segregation.

What is the history of freedom of assembly? ›

The freedom of assembly comes from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment, which says "Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . . the right of the people peaceably to assemble." The First Amendment is part of the Bill of Rights, which contains the first ten amendments to the Constitution.

Why is the freedom of peaceful assembly so important? ›

Freedom of peaceful assembly can serve many purposes, including (but not limited to) the expression of views and the defence of common interests, celebration, commemoration, picketing and protest.

When was freedom of assembly established? ›

The amendment took its final form on September 24, 1789: “Congress shall make no Law respecting an establishment of Religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of Speech, or of the Press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of ...

Why is peaceful assembly important? ›

Section 2(c) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the freedom of “peaceful assembly.” It is one of the fundamental freedoms protected in the Charter. The section protects a person's right to gather with others and express ideas.

What does assemble mean in the First Amendment? ›

The right of assembly means that the government of the United States generally cannot prohibit people from gathering together and/or protesting. Some restrictions may apply to this right, but citizens are constitutionally guaranteed the freedom to protest.

Whats the difference between the right to assemble and the right to petition? ›

Generally however, the right to assemble usually takes on a more public form as the right to gather in protest. The right to petition for redress of grievances allows people to access to their government in order to express demands for action without being retaliated against.

What does 2nd Amendment say? ›

Constitution of the United States

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

What is Article 11 of the human rights Act? ›

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. 2.

What is the right of assembly and association? ›

What is the right to freedom of assembly and association? The right to peaceful assembly protects the right of individuals and groups to meet and to engage in peaceful protest. The right to freedom of association protects the right to form and join associations to pursue common goals.

Who did the peaceful act? ›

The PAA was passed by the Dewan Rakyat on 29 November 2011 with no dissenting votes after opposition members of parliament staged a walkout during the final debate. Some 500 people staged a protest outside Parliament during the vote.

What is the law for freedom of speech? ›

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

What freedom of speech really means? ›

The right to freedom of speech allows individuals to express themselves without government interference or regulation. The Supreme Court requires the government to provide substantial justification for the interference with the right of free speech where it attempts to regulate the content of the speech.

What is not allowed in freedom of speech? ›

Freedom of speech does not include the right:

To incite imminent lawless action. Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969). To make or distribute obscene materials. Roth v.

When How can the government limit free speech or assembly? ›

As the Supreme Court held in Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969), the government may forbid “incitement”—speech “directed at inciting or producing imminent lawless action” and “likely to incite or produce such action” (such as a speech to a mob urging it to attack a nearby building).

Can the government impose require a permit to assemble? ›

Can a Local Government Require a Permit to Assemble? A local government may do so only if the nature or size of the gathering is one that requires local government services or crowd control.

Is freedom of assembly an absolute freedom or are there limitations describe what you would consider an assembly that would not be protected by law? ›

The right to assemble is not an absolute right. There are some restrictions on this right as there are with other rights. The right to assemble is not as strongly protected by the government as other rights, such as the freedom of speech.

What is an example of freedom of movement? ›

The right to freedom of movement includes the right to move freely within a country for those who are lawfully within the country, the right to leave any country and the right to enter a country of which you are a citizen.

Is right to assembly a Fundamental Right? ›

Hence, the right to assemble is a necessary corollary of the right to free speech and expression. Article 19(1)(b) provides for the right to assemble peaceably and without arms. This includes the right to hold public meetings, hunger strikes, and the right to take out processions.

What is right of peaceful assembly and association in political rights? ›

The rights to freedom of expression, association, and peaceful assembly are grouped together because they are often intertwined. Freedom of expression is frequently a necessary component of the rights to freedom of assembly and association when people join together for an expressive purpose.

What is the meaning of Article 22? ›

22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. (1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.

What is a good example of freedom of speech? ›

This includes the right to express your views aloud (for example through public protest and demonstrations) or through: published articles, books or leaflets. television or radio broadcasting. works of art.

Why does freedom of speech have limits? ›

The First Amendment allows us to speak our mind and stand up for what we believe in. However, the limits on free speech are rooted in the principle that we're not allowed to harm others to get what we want. That's why we're not allowed to use to speech for force, fraud, or defamation.

What is Article 11 of the Constitution? ›

Article 11

Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

What isn't protected by the First Amendment? ›

Obscenity. Fighting words. Defamation (including libel and slander) Child pornography.

What are some examples of freedom of religion? ›

It includes the right to change your religion or beliefs at any time. You also have the right to put your thoughts and beliefs into action. This could include your right to wear religious clothing, the right to talk about your beliefs or take part in religious worship.

What amendment says you can't be tried twice? ›

The Double Jeopardy Clause in the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution prohibits anyone from being prosecuted twice for substantially the same crime. The relevant part of the Fifth Amendment states, "No person shall . . . be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb . . . . "

What is an example of freedom of petition? ›

Lobbying, letter-writing, e-mail campaigns, testifying before tribunals, filing lawsuits, supporting referenda, collecting signatures for ballot initiatives, peaceful protests and picketing: all public articulation of issues, complaints and interests designed to spur government action qualifies under the petition ...

What is the meaning of freedom of assembly? ›

Freedom of assembly ensures people can gather and meet, both publicly and privately. Assemblies can be platforms to advocate for change and for people to raise awareness about the issues that matter to them, whether it is human rights, socio-economic rights, or any other issue.

What are examples of right of assembly? ›

Freedom of assembly examples

Examples of meetings that are protected under the freedom of assembly include hosting a party, going to church, militia meetings, political party conventions, protests, public meetings, political demonstrations, rallies, and assemblies for any group of people.

What is not allowed under freedom of assembly? ›

The First Amendment protects peaceful, not violent, assembly. However, there must a “clear and present danger” or an “imminent incitement of lawlessness” before government officials may restrict free-assembly rights.

What does assemble mean in the First Amendment? ›

The right of assembly means that the government of the United States generally cannot prohibit people from gathering together and/or protesting. Some restrictions may apply to this right, but citizens are constitutionally guaranteed the freedom to protest.

How does the freedom to assemble peacefully guarantee the acquisition of human rights? ›

Everyone has the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and association, which are essential components of democracy. The right of peaceful assembly includes the right to hold meetings, sit-ins, strikes, rallies, events or protests, both offline and online.

What does the right to assemble allow people to do? ›

The First Amendment guarantees “the freedom of speech” but also “the right of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” It ensures the people's access to streets and public places for “purposes of assembly” as “a part of the privileges, immunities, rights, and ...

What does the right to assemble peaceably mean quizlet? ›

It is the right to gather without causing violence; workers on strike or political parties.

What are the limits to freedom of assembly? ›

Protests That Pose Public Safety Threats

Violence or the threat of violence isn't the only limit on the right of assembly. Authorities may also prevent or stop gatherings that pose other immediate threats to public safety. Police routinely arrest protesters who block traffic on freeways or bridges.

Is freedom of assembly an absolute freedom? ›

Freedom of assembly, however, is not absolute. Most constitutional or legal provisions regarding this right specify that only peaceful assemblies are protected. Permits are sometimes required for assemblies in public places, and noise and traffic issues also limit the exercise of this right.

What are some examples of peaceful assembly? ›

Such assemblies may take many forms, including demonstrations, protests, meetings, rallies, online assemblies, civil disobedience or direct action campaigns, provided that they are non-violent. Everyone has the right of peaceful assembly: including non-citizens and children.

What's the difference between freedom of association and freedom of assembly? ›

The right to peaceful assembly protects the right of individuals and groups to meet and to engage in peaceful protest. The right to freedom of association protects the right to form and join associations to pursue common goals.

Is freedom of assembly an absolute freedom or are there limitations describe what you would consider an assembly that would not be protected by law? ›

The right to assemble is not an absolute right. There are some restrictions on this right as there are with other rights. The right to assemble is not as strongly protected by the government as other rights, such as the freedom of speech.

What is an example of freedom of the press? ›

Freedom of the press is defined as a right guaranteed in the United States by the first amendment for journalists to print whatever they want without government control. The right of a journalist to write an article critical of the President is an example of freedom of the press.

What is the history of freedom of assembly? ›

The freedom of assembly comes from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment, which says "Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . . the right of the people peaceably to assemble." The First Amendment is part of the Bill of Rights, which contains the first ten amendments to the Constitution.

Whats the difference between the right to assemble and the right to petition? ›

Generally however, the right to assemble usually takes on a more public form as the right to gather in protest. The right to petition for redress of grievances allows people to access to their government in order to express demands for action without being retaliated against.

What is the right of assembly and association? ›

The rights to freedom of expression, association, and peaceful assembly are grouped together because they are often intertwined. Freedom of expression is frequently a necessary component of the rights to freedom of assembly and association when people join together for an expressive purpose.

What amendments protect the Rights of peaceable assembly and petition? ›

First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

How does the right of association extend the right of assembly? ›

how does right of association extend the right of assembly? the right of association gives the right to assemble about specific issues.

How has the Supreme Court interpreted freedom of association? ›

The right to assemble allows people to gather for peaceful and lawful purposes. Implicit within this right is the right to association and belief. The Supreme Court has expressly recognized that a right to freedom of association and belief is implicit in the First, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments.

Videos

1. "Simon Peter in Prison" Acts 12.1-17 (Pastor Jonathan)
(Abundant Life)
2. Judith Butler's Istanbul Lecture: 'Freedom of Assembly, or Who are the People?' September, 2013
(Columbia Global Centers)
3. Gateway to Freedom: Right of Assembly
(The Federalist Society)
4. The Right of the People Peaceably to Assemble: Protecting Speech by Stopping Anarchist Violence
(Senator Ted Cruz)
5. Applying a FreeStyle Libre 2 sensor
(FreeStyle UK & Ireland)
6. Phase II - Assemble, claim and publish artifacts
(Treasures Of Freedom)
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